Homework - Chapter 15


15.1 Properties of Acids and Bases

1. List the five general properties of aqueous acids.

2. Name the following acids
a) HBrO
b) HBrO3

3. List the five general properties of aqueous bases?

4. Define strong acid.

5. Why are strong acids also strong electrolytes.

6. Distinguish between strong electrolytes and strong acids.

7. Distinguish between binary acids and oxyacids in terms of their component elements and the system used in naming them.

8. Name each of the following:
a) HCl
b) H2S
c) HNO3
d) H2SO3
e) HClO3
f) HNO2
9. Write the formula for each of the following acids:
a) hydrofluoric acid
b) hydroiodic acid
c) perbromic acid
d) chlorous acid
e) phosphoric acid
f) hypochlorous acid

15.2 Acid Base Theories

1. Copy the following equation to your homework sheet and label each reactant and each product as a proton door or a proton acceptor and as acidic or basic:

H2CO3 + H2O = HCO31- + H3O1+

2. Copy the following equation to your homework sheet and label the Arrhenius bases, Bronsted-Lowry bases, and Lewis bases. Explain your answer for each.

a) NaOH ---> Na1+ + OH1-

b) HF + H2O ---> F1- + H3O1+

c) H1+ + NH3 ---> NH41+

3. Distinguish between monoprotic, diprotic, and triporotic acids and give an example of each.

4. Which of the three acid definitions is the broadest. Explain your answer.

5. Define and give an equation to illustrate each of the following:
a) conjugate base
b) conjugate acid

6. What is the relationship between the strength of an acid and its conjugate base?

7. What is the relationship between the strength of a base and its conjugate acid?

8. What trend is there in the favored direction or proton transfer reactions?

9. What determines the extent to which a proton transfer reaction occurs.

10. Copy the following equation to your homework sheet and label the proton donor or acid, the proton acceptor or base and each conjugate acid base pair.

a) CH3COOH + H2O = H3O1+ + CH3COO1-

b) HCO31- + H2O = H2CO3 + OH1-

c) HNO3 + SO42- ---> HSO41- + NO31-

15.3 Acid Base Reactions

1. Complete and balance the following acid base reactions:

a) H2CO3 + Sr(OH)2 --->

b) HClO4 + NaOH --->

c) HBr + Ba(OH)2 --->

d) NaHCO3 + H2SO4 ---.

2. Consider the equation for acetic acid plus water:
HC2H3O2 + H2O ---> C2H3O21- + H3O1+

a) Identify the two acids in the equation and then refer to table 15-6 in your text to compare the strengths of the two acids in the equation. Do the same for the two bases.
b) Determine which direction, forward or reverse, is favored in the reaction.

3. Explain how the presence of several oxygen atoms in a compound containing an -OH group can make the compound acidic.